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Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

Within- and between-mesocycle variations of well-being measures in top elite male soccer players: a longitudinal study

  • Rafael Oliveira1,2,3,*,
  • Halil İbrahim Ceylan4
  • João Paulo Brito1,2,3
  • Alexandre Martins1,2,5
  • Matilde Nalha1
  • Bruno Mendes6
  • Filipe Manuel Clemente7,8

1Sports Science School of Rio Maior–Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal

2Life Quality Research Centre, 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal

3Research Center in Sport Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal

4Ataturk University, Faculty of Kazim Karabekir Education, Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey

5Comprehensive Health Research Centre (CHRC), Departamento de Desporto e Saúde, Escola de Saúde e Desenvolvimento Humano, Universidade de Évora, Largo dos Colegiais, 7000 Évora, Portugal

6Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal

7Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal

8Instituto de Telecomunicações, Delegação da Covilhã, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1804094 Vol.18,Issue 4,April 2022 pp.1-14

Submitted: 14 December 2021 Accepted: 17 January 2022

Published: 30 April 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and health development approaches in male athletes)

*Corresponding Author(s): Rafael Oliveira E-mail:


Background: The aims of this study were to describe the variations of training monotony (TM), training strain (TS), and acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) through Hooper Index categories (fatigue, stress, DOMS, and sleep quality) and to compare those variations between player status and player positions. Methods: Seventeen male professional soccer players participated in this study. Considering player status, participants were divided in nine starters and eight non-starters. Additionally, participants were divided by playing positions: three wide defenders, four central defenders, three wide midfielders, four central midfielders, and three strikers. They were followed during 40-week in-season period. TM, TS, and ACWR were calculated for each HI category, respectively. Data were grouped in 10 mesocycles for further analysis. Results: Results showed variations across the mesocycles. In general, starters showed higher values for TM, TS, and ACWR calculations than non-starters, although there were some exceptions. Regarding player positions, significant differences were found in stress between wide defenders vs central midfielders for TM (p = 0.033, ES = 5.16), central defenders vs wide defenders for ACWR (p = 0.044, ES = 4.95), and in sleep between wide defenders and strikers for TM (p = 0.015, ES = 5.80). Conclusions: This study revealed that an analysis of players’ well-being parameters according to player status and positions can provide clear information to the coaches and their staff to complement the tasks of training monitoring.


ACWR; fatigue; football; muscle soreness; training monotony; training strain; sleep; stress

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Rafael Oliveira,Halil İbrahim Ceylan,João Paulo Brito,Alexandre Martins,Matilde Nalha,Bruno Mendes,Filipe Manuel Clemente. Within- and between-mesocycle variations of well-being measures in top elite male soccer players: a longitudinal study. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(4);1-14.


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